Παρακάτω είναι μία λίστα σχετικά με ασθένειες που μπορεί να πάθει ένα ferret. Δέν έχουμε σκοπό να σας ανησυχήσουμε, αλλά μόνο να σας βοηθήσουμε. Οι πληροφορίες είναι ενδεικτικές και κάποιο σύμπτωμα δέν υπονοεί απαραίτητα το αντίστοιχο πρόβλημα. Μπορεί το ζωάκι σας να είναι μιά χαρά, όμως όσα περισσότερα γνωρίζετε τόσο πιό αποτελεσματικά μπορείτε να ανταποκριθείτε σε προβλήματα υγείας.

Εάν το μελετήσετε λίγο, θα καταλάβετε ότι ένας σωστός, γνώστης και ικανός γιατρός πραγματικά την αξίζει την αμοιβή του, μιάς και το επάγγελμά του μπορεί να περιλαμβάνει πολύ περισσότερα από όσα αναγράφονται παρακάτω !

Ο κτηνίατρός σας είναι ο ΜΟΝΟΣ που μπορεί να διαγνώσει άν κάτι πάει λάθος με την υγεία του μικρού σας, και έχει τον τελευταίο λόγο και την ευθύνη!

ΔΙΑΦΟΡΕΣ ΑΣΘΕΝΕΙΕΣ

Νόσος Αιτιολογία Βλάβη Σημειώσεις
Πολλαπλασιαστική κολίτιδα Lawsonia intracellularis  Lawsonia Thickened colon/rectum, Mucosal epithelial proliferation, no goblet cells, crypts line by pleomorphic/tall columnar cells, piling, intestinal glands convoluted/branching, mitotic figures, necrotic debris in crypt Clusters of comma-shaped bacteria in apical portion of cytoplasm of affected epithelial cells by WS
Καμπυλοβακτηρίωση Campylobacter jejuni Diarrhea, mucinous, blood-tinged feces Infection common, disease less common
Γαστρικό έλκος / Γαστρίτιδα Helicobacter mustelae Ulcers in pylorus, duodenum Chronic, peri-lesional fibrosis, macrophages and lymphocytes in lamina propria Stain with WS
Kολιβακιλλίωση E. Coli Mastitis, high mortality Coagulative/liquefactive necrosis of mammary gland and surrounding tissue, suppurative exudate, abundant bacteria
Botulism Clostridium botulinum Muscle incoordination, flaccid paralysis, No lesions Toxin C
Σαλμονέλωση Salmonella enteritidis ser. typhimurium most common but many other ser. may occur Necrohemorrhagic enteritis, leukocytic infiltration Spleen, liver, LNs are enlarged and often contain foci of necrosis.
Φυματίωση M. bovistuberculosis, avium Tubercles in mesenteric LN, lung, liver, spleen, peritoneum Granulomas with acid-fast organisms towards the periphery within macrophages
Στρεπτόκοκκος S. zooepidemicus Rhinitis, pneumonia, abscessesencephalitis, valvular endocarditis
Aeromoniasis Aeromonas sp. White foci in liver, spleen, lung, heart, LNs, adrenals with colonies of gram negative bacteria
Λιστερίωση Listeria monocytogenes Carrier, no signs
Ασθένεια του Καρέ Paramyxoviridae Morbillivirus Mucopurulent conjunctivitis, pyodermahyperkeratosis of foot pads, fulminating pneumonia, encephalitis, eosinophilic intracytoplasmic (and intranuclear) inclusion bodies especially in epithelial cells
Aleutian disease Parvovirus Hypergammaglobulinemia Perivasculitis and vaculitis (fibrinoid degeneration, mononuclear cell infiltration), plasma cell proliferation in kidneys, thymus, medullary cords of LN, lungs, bone marrow, spleen
Γρίπη Orthomyxoviridae Influenzavirus A and B Transmission to and from humans. Mucoserous nasal discharge, crusts, conjunctivitis Loss of cilia, epithelial erosion, epithelial cell necrosis, focal epithelial hyperplasia with nuclear pleomorphism, squamous metaplasia
Ψευδολύσσα Porcine Herpesvirus 1 Pruritus, self-mutilation. Hyperplasia of reticular cells, lymphoid necrosis, focal necrosis of liver, vasculitis. Nonsuppurative meningoencephalomyelitis, edema, gliosis, perivascular mononuclear cells cuffing Neuron degeneration, intranuclear inclusion bodies in neurons and glial cells Lymphohistiocytic neuritis, neuronal degeneration with intranuclear inclusion bodies in mesenteric Schwann cells
Ροταϊό Rotavirus (atypical– group C) Neonatal diarrhea– blunting of villus tips, cuboidal epithelial cells
Λοιμώδη ρινοτραχειίτιδα των βοοειδών Bovine Herpesvirus 1 From uncooked beef products in feed. Acute, purulent pharyngitis, tracheitis, esophagus with ballooning degenerationintranuclear inclusion bodies
Λύσσα Rhaboviridaelissavirus
Dirofilariasis Dirofilaria immitis Pulmonary congestion, edema, enlarged heart. Microfilaria in pulmonary vessels  Highly susceptible
Κρυπτοσποριδίωση Cryptosporidium Intestinal hemorrhages Spherical/ovoid bodies associated with brush border of villus tips and lateral margins, mild villus eosinophils in lamina propria  Uncommon
Τοξοπλάσμωση Toxoplasma gondii White foci on lungs. Interstitial pneumonia, alveolitis, intraseptal/alveolar mononuclear infiltrates, abundant cysts with trophozoites in close association with type I cells
Τριχίνιαση Trichinela Larvae encapsulated within muscles
Ωτοακαρίαση Otodectes cynotis Dermatitis of external ear
Ψώρα Sarcoptes scabiei Alopecia
Blastomycosis Blastomyces dermatitidis Lobar granulomatous pneumonia, bronchial lymphoid hyperplasia, granulomatous pleuritis, splenitis, granulomatous meningoencephalitis  Rare
Cryptococcosis Cryptococcus neoformans Viscera covered with jelly-like material, firm white nodules on serosa of intestine, spleen, liver Diffuse nonsuppurative meningitis with yeasts
Ιστοπλάσμωση Histoplasma capsulatum Macrophages containing yeasts in granulomas
Ακτινομυκητίαση Actinomyces species SQ abscesses, pneumonia with white nodules, enlarged abscessed lymph nodesPyogranulomatous inflammationgranulation tissues, abscesses, colonies of club-like gram negative structures intertwined with branching threads of gram positive mycelium
Δερματοφύτωση Microsporum canis Alopecia, yeasts within hair shafts
Nutritional steatitis High fish diet, low Vitamine E Diffuse firm subcutaneous swellings, no muscle lesions, yellow-brown granular firm adipose tissueMacrophages, lymphs, fibroblastsneutrophils, fat necrosis, deposition of PAS pos fluorescent lipopigment within macrophages and extracellular
Απλαστική Αναιμία του οίστρου (2) Estrogen toxicity Pale mucosa, enlarged vulva, anemialeukopenia, thrombocytopeniaBone marrow hypoplasia of all cell lines  Prolonged estrus
Τοξίκωση ψευδαργύρου Zinc toxicity Diffuse nephrosis, periacinar fatty degeneration
Υπογλυκαιμία Beta cell neoplasms
Διαβήτης Aged
Νεφρολιθίαση
Μυοκαρδιοπάθεια Aged Thickening of mitral valve leaflet, myocardial and endocardial fibrosis. Myofiber necrosis, hypertrophy, hypertrophy of media of coronary arteries, hepatic congestion and fibrosis
Γαστρικό Έλκος Stress Hemorrhages
Εκλαμψία / Τοξιναιμία εγκυμοσύνης Fatty liver
Νεοπλασματικές ασθένειες Μαστοκύτωμα
Lymphosarcoma
Malignant Megakaryocytic myelosis
Μυέλωμα κυττάρων πλάσματος
Πλακώδες καρκίνωμα
Αδενοκαρκίνωμα των ακροποσθιων ιδρωτοποιών αδένων
Νησίδα καρκινικών κυττάρων
Καρκίνωμα φλοιού των επινεφριδίων
Χόρδωμα

Για τα Black-footed κουνάβια:
Βασικοκυτταρικά καρκινικά κύτταρα
Σμηγματογόνο αδενοκαρκίνωμα
Αδενοκαρκίνωμα μαστού

 

ΑΣΘΕΝΕΙΕΣ ΓΑΣΤΡΕΝΤΕΡΟΛΟΓΙΚΟΥ (ΓΕ)

Νόσος Παράγοντας Κλινικά σημάδια Διαγνωστικά
Παράσιτα ΓΕ Coccidia, Giardia, Nematodes (rare) Diarrhea. Weight loss. Young ferrets after weaning are often infected with coccidia. Clusters of comma-shaped bacteria in apical portion of cytoplasm of affected epithelial cells by WS
Neonatal diarrhea or neonatal sickness Rotavirus and secondary bacterial infection Diarrhea. Stunted growth. Dehydration. Kits look wet and hairs from the head and neck are slicked down. Ferrets from 1 to 7 days old affected Electronic microscopy of feces or intestinal cells from dead kits. Diagnosis is usually based on clinical signs. RT-PCR can detect both group A&C rotavirus. ELISA can only identify group A.
Proliferative bowel disease (PBD) Lawsonia intracellularis Chronic diarrhea. Diarrhea is profuse and contains mucus and blood.

Wasting disease. Abdominal discomfort. Severe weight loss. Dehydration. Affects younger ferrets from 12 to 24 weeks old.

Biopsy or necropsy confirms diagnosis.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) Autoimmune disease Multiple causes suspected Chronic severe diarrhea with or without mucus or blood. Hypoalbuminemia dehydration, weight loss, anorexia and vomits may occur. Ferrets older than six months are reported. Biopsy or histopathology confirms diagnosis.
Gastritis and gastric ulcers Severe stress (rapid growth, dietary changes, concurrent illness) and Helicobacter mustelae) Often unspecific. Lethargy, abdominal discomfort, tarry stools, anorexia, weight loss. Vomits, anemia. Illness occurs in ferrets from 12 to 20 weeks old. Fecal occult blood positive. Postmortem exam
Epizootic catarrhal enteritis (ECE) Enteric coronavirus Catarrhal diarrhea, dehydration, weight loss. Green and mucoid diarrhea was reported, but not pathognomonic. Young ferrets usually have mild or moderate signs or are asymptomatic. Older ferrets are more severely affected. Biopsy or histopathology confirms diagnosis.
Campylobacteriosis and Salmonellosis Campylobacter, Salmonella spp. Uncommon in research facility. May occur when ferrets are fed raw meat. Fecal culture confirms diagnosis.

 

ΑΣΘΕΝΕΙΕΣ ΑΝΑΠΝΕΥΣΤΙΚΟΥ

Νόσος Παράγοντας Κλινικά σημάδια Διαγνωστικά
Distemper Canine distemper virus, Morbilivirus Fever, nasal and ocular discharge (mucopurulent), depression, anorexia. Footpads and nose hyperkeratosis. Secondary bacterial pneumonia with cough. CNS signs. Vomiting and diarrhea may also occur. Almost 100% mortality. Clinical signs and postmortem diagnosis:

immunochemistry, histopathology and immunofluorescence, virus isolation, PCR. Inclusion bodies in brain, lungs, bladder, stomach, and lymph nodes.

Influenza Human influenza virus (varied strains) Fever and mucoserous discharge, coughing, sneezing as main clinical signs. Upper respiratory signs. Self-limiting. Clinical signs, virus isolation from nasal discharge and antibody titer.
Bacterial pneumonia Gram+ (Streptococcus spp.) and Gram– (E. coli, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) Lower respiratory tract signs. Not common in ferrets. Bacterial

pneumonia often occurs secondarily to viral diseases such as influenza or CDV.

Clinical signs, radiographs. CBC and microbial cultures from tracheal wash. Postmortem confirmation by histopathology and bacterial culture.
Pulmonary mycoses Blastomyces dermatitides Coccidiomycosis immitis Unlikely in ferrets kept indoors in research facilities. Lower respiratory signs. Diagnosis based on cytologic identification of the agents and history of travel or location of animal in areas where etiologic agent is endemic.

 

ΑΣΘΕΝΕΙΕΣ ΕΝΔΟΚΡΙΝΟΛΟΓΙΚΟΥ

Νόσος Παράγοντας Κλινικά σημάδια Διαγνωστικά
Pulmonary mycoses Blastomyces dermatitides Coccidiomycosis immitis Unlikely in ferrets kept indoors in research facilities. Lower respiratory signs. Diagnosis based on cytologic identification of the agents and history of travel or location of animal in areas where etiologic agent is endemic.
Insulinoma Functional neoplasia of pancreatic beta cells Affected ferrets range in age from 3 to 9 years. Main signs include disorientation, hind limb weakness, and collapse. Hyper salivation is not uncommon. Hypoglycemic episodes may be precipitated by previous exercise or fasting. Seizures may occur. Clinical signs and demonstration of fasting hypoglycemia. Exploratory aparotomy or necropsy confirms diagnosis.
Adrenal gland disease (AGD) Adrenocortical hyperplasia adenoma, adenocarcinoma Reported in ferrets from 2 to 5 years old. Bilateral symmetric alopecia from the back and tail. Sexual hormone levels are high in this disease. Females may show vulvar enlargement and males may resume sexual behavior (e.g., mounting). Clinical signs and elevated serum levels of sex hormones. Enlarged adrenal gland may be detected by palpation, ultrasound, or exploratory laparotomy.
Hyperestrogenism Spayed female with remnant ovary Intact female in estrus Ferrets are induced ovulators. During the breeding season estrogen levels increase, and if jills are kept unbred for more than one month they may develop bone marrow suppression due to estrogen blood levels. Alopecia, anemia, swollen vulva, and thrombocytopenia are reported. Differential diagnosis should be done between AGD and remnant ovary in spayed jills. Alopecia and enlarged vulva are common signs in both disorders.

 

ΑΣΘΕΝΕΙΕΣ ΛΥΜΦΑΤΙΚΟΥ

Νόσος Παράγοντας Κλινικά σημάδια Διαγνωστικά
Lymphosarcoma Neoplasia of unknown etiology Retrovirus suspected Juvenile forms in ferrets <2 years of age, acute clinical signs (dyspnea, pleural effusion; caused by presence of mediastinal masses). Older ferrets have a chronic course of disease involving spleen, liver, and lymph nodes. Other atypical forms are reported with low incidence. Confirmation by postmortem exam or biopsy of the abnormal tissue.
Splenomegaly (splenic enlargement) Lymphosarcoma (neoplasia) Extramedullary hematopoiesis (diffuse enlargement) Other: splenitis, congestion, and lymphoid hyperplasia are uncommon. Can cause abdominal enlargement and discomfort. Lymphosarcoma is a wasting disease (EMH). May be found in clinically normal ferrets or with no related illness (insulinoma or adrenal disease). Biopsy or postmortem macro- and microscopic exam establishes differential diagnosis. Peripheral blood examination and differential may aid in final diagnosis.

 

ΛΟΙΠΕΣ ΑΣΘΕΝΕΙΕΣ

Νόσος Παράγοντας Κλινικά σημάδια Διαγνωστικά
Aleutian disease Parvovirus Wasting disease. Unspecific signs. Hypergammaglobulinemia and autoimmune glomerulonephritis at end stages is reported. Serology, hyperproteinemia. Postmortem lesions to confirm the disease.
Systemic coronavirosis Systemic coronavirus Wasting disease. Unspecific signs. Pyogranulomas on liver and spleen on postmortem exam. Masses may be palpated antemortem. Similar lesions to feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) dry form. Postmortem macroscopic and microscopic lesions confirm the disease (pyogranulomas).
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